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Hyaluronic Acid
Everything you need to know concerning Hyaluronic Acid can be found on the Wikipedia Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyaluronan

References and Research (With Links)
Clinical Research
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  2. University of Miami & Journal of Internal Medicine, Fraser, J.R.E et al'; Laurent, T. C.; Laurent, U. B. G. (1997). "Hyaluronan: its nature, distribution, functions and turnover" (PDF). Journal of Internal Medicine 242 (1): 27–33. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00170.x. PMID 9260563. Retrieved 2009-06-05.

  3. ScienceDirect, European Journal of Cell Biology, Stern R (August 2004). "Hyaluronan catabolism: a new metabolic pathway". Eur J Cell Biol 83 (7): 317–25. doi:10.1078/0171-9335-00392. PMID 15503855.

  4. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Sugahara, K.; N.B. Schwartz and A. Dorfman (1979). "Biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus". Journal of Biological Chemistry 254 (14): 6252–6261. PMID 376529.

  5. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Wessels, M.R.; A.E. Moses, J.B. Goldberg and T.J. DiCesare (1991). "Hyaluronic acid capsule is a virulence factor for mucoid group A streptococci". PNAS 88 (19): 8317–8321.doi:10.1073/pnas.88.19.8317. PMC 52499. PMID 1656437.

  6. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Schrager, H.M.; J.G. Rheinwald and M.R. Wessels (1996). "Hyaluronic acid capsule and the role of streptococcal entry into keratinocytes in invasive skin infection". Journal of Clinical Investigation 98(9): 1954–1958. doi:10.1172/JCI118998. PMC 507637. PMID 8903312.

  7. Annals of Internal Medicine, Rutjes, AW; Jüni, P; da Costa, BR; Trelle, S; Nüesch, E; Reichenbach, S (2012 Aug 7). "Viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis.". Annals of internal medicine 157 (3): 180–91. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-3-201208070-00473.PMID 22868835.

  8. "Hylira gel" (sodium hyaluronate); Drugs.com, http://www.drugs.com/cdi/hylira-gel.html.

  9. The American Journal of Pathology, Josefsson, A.; Adamo, H.; Hammarsten, P.; Granfors, T.; Stattin, P. R.; Egevad, L.; Laurent, A. E. M.; Wikström, P.; Bergh, A. (2011). "Prostate Cancer Increases Hyaluronan in Surrounding Nonmalignant Stroma, and This Response is Associated with Tumor Growth and an Unfavorable Outcome". The American Journal of Pathology 179 (4): 1961–1968. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.06.005.PMC 3181394. PMID 21854754.

  10. The Journal of Pathology, g. Gritsenko, P.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P. (2012). "Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion". The Journal of Pathology 226 (2): 185–199. doi:10.1002/path.3031. PMID 22006671.
  11. ScienceDirect.com-Elsevier, De Andrés Santos MI, Velasco-Martín A, Hernández-Velasco E, Martín-Gil J, Martín-Gil FJ (1994). "Thermal behaviour of aqueous solutions of sodium hyaluronate from different commercial sources".Thermochim Acta 242: 153–160. doi:10.1016/0040-6031(94)85017-8.

  12. PubMed.com Shu XZ, Ghosh K, Liu Y, Palumbo FS, Luo Y, Clark RAF, Prestwich GD: Attachment and spreading of fibroblast on an RGD peptide-modified injectable hyaluronan hydrogel. J Biomed Materials Res, 68:365-75, 2004.

  13. Wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyaluronan, "Hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc) approved by EMEA for pain due to ankle and shoulder OA". National Health Service. Retrieved 2007-07-09.

  14. Journal of Clinical Investigation, Toole, B.P. (August 2000). "Hyaluronan is not just a goo!". Journal of Clinical Investigation 106 (3): 335–336. doi:10.1172/JCI10706. PMC 314333. PMID 10930435.

  15. US National Library of Medicine, Holmes et al. (1988). "Hyaluronic acid in human articular cartilage. Age-related changes in content and size". Biochem J 250: 435–441.

  16. US National Library of Medicine, Averbeck M et al. (2007) Differential regulation of hyaluronan metabolism in the epidermal and dermal compartments of human skin by UVB irradiation. J Invest Dermatol 127:687–697.

  17. US National Library of Medicine, Glycosaminoglycans of Brain during Development. R. U. Margolis, R. K. Margolis, L. B. Chang, and C. Preti. BIOCHEMISTRY VOL. 14, NO. I , 1975. Pg. 85. Retrieved 1/17/08.

  18. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Meyer K, Hobby GL, Chaffee E, Dawson MH (January 1940). "THE HYDROLYSIS OF HYALURONIC ACID BY BACTERIAL ENZYMES". J Exp Med 71 (2): 137–46. doi:10.1084/jem.71.2.137.PMC 2135078. PMID 19870951.

  19. Journal of Inflammation, Saari H et al. (1993) Differential effects of reactive oxygen species on native synovial fluid and purified human umbilical cord hyaluronate. Inflammation 17:403–415.

  20. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Schulz,T.; Schumacher,U.; Prehm,P. Hyaluronan export by the ABC transporter MRP5 and its modulation by intracellular cGMP. J.Biol.Chem.282,20999-21004
hyaluronic acid molecular schematic
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  21. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Kakizaki, I.; Kojima, K.; Takagaki, K.; Endo, M.; Kannagi, R.; Ito, M.; Maruo, Y.; Sato, H. et al. (2004). "A novel mechanism for the inhibition of hyaluronan biosynthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (32): 33281–33289. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405918200. PMID 15190064.

  22. FEBS Letters, Yoshihara, S; Kon, A; Kudo, D; Nakazawa, H; Kakizaki, I; Sasaki, M; Endo, M; Takagaki, K (2005). "A hyaluronan synthase suppressor, 4-methylumbelliferone, inhibits liver metastasis of melanoma cells". FEBS Letters 579 (12): 2722–6. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2005.03.079. PMID 15862315.

  23. Biopharma.Novozymes.com, Novozymes Biopharma | Produced without the use of animal-derived materials or solvents. Article link.

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  26. Patient's Guide:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x W. Y. John Chen and Giovanni Abatangelo, Wound Repair and Regeneration, 1999, 7: 79–89, Article: Hyaluronic Acid link

  27. PubMed.gov, Kaya G. et al" Genes & Development 1997, 15: 996–1007 

  28. OhioLink Electronic Journal Center, Laurent U. B. G. and Reed R. K. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 1991, 7: 237–256

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  30. Hepatology, 1990 Campbell P. et al" Hepatology 1990, "Hyaluronate levels in donor organ washout effluents: a simple and predictive parameter of graft viability." PMC 11: 199–204MP. J.Biol.Chem.282,20999-21004
  31. International Journal of Oncology, Matou-Nasri, S.; Gaffney, J.; Kumar, S.; Slevin, M. (2009). "Oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce angiogenesis through distinct CD44 and RHAMM-mediated signalling pathways involving Cdc2 and gamma-adducin". International journal of oncology 35 (4): 761–773. PMID 19724912. 

  32. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Yung, S.; Chan, T. M. (2011). "Pathophysiology of the Peritoneal Membrane during Peritoneal Dialysis: The Role of Hyaluronan". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2011: 1.doi:10.1155/2011/180594. PMC 3238805. PMID 22203782. 

  33. American Journal of Transplantation, Tesar, B. M.; Jiang, D.; Liang, J.; Palmer, S. M.; Noble, P. W.; Goldstein, D. R. (2006). "The Role of Hyaluronan Degradation Products as Innate Alloimmune Agonists". American Journal of Transplantation 6 (11): 2622–2635. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2006.01537.x. PMID 17049055. edit

  34. Woodhead Publishing Limited:a b Kennndy J. F., et al., HA, Volume 2 Biomedical, Medical and Clinical Aspects, 2002, Woodhead Publishing Limited. "Rheologic Behavior of Osteoarthritic Synovial Fluid after Addition of Hyaluronic Acid: A Pilot Study" LINK

  35. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Wisniewski H. G., et al., The Journal of Immunology, 1996, 156: 1609–1615. "The Link Module from Human TSG-6 Inhibits Neutrophil Migration in a Hyaluronan- and Inter-α-inhibitor-independent Manner". LINK

  36. American Journal of Physiology, Cell Physiology. Kobayashi H. and Terao T. American Journal of Physiology, 1997, 276: C1151-1159. "Hyaluronic acid-specific regulation of cytokines by human uterine fibroblasts". LINK

  37. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mohamadzadeh M., et al., The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1998, 101: 97–108. "The CD44-initiated pathway of T-cell extravasation uses" LINK (PDF) 

  VLA-4 but not LFA-1 for firm adhesion"

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  41. Journal of Embryology & Experimental Morphology. Morriss-Kay G. M., et al., Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology, 1986, 98: 59–70

  42. Experimental Cell Research. Ellis I. R., et al., Experimental Cell Research, 1996, 228: 326–342

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  48. Genes & Development. Kaya G. et al., Genes & Development, 1997, 15: 996–1007

  49. Annals of Surgery. Longaker M. T., et al., Annals of Surgery, 1991, 213: 292–296

  50. American Journal of Pathology. Baradwaj AG, et al. Spontaneous metastasis of prostate cancer is promoted by excess hyaluornan synthesis and processing. Am J Path. 2009;174:1027–1036
  51. Journal of Cell Biology. Bharadwaj AG et al. (2007). "Inducible hyaluornan production reveals differential effects of prostate tumor cell growth and tumor angiogenesis". J Cell Biol 282: 20561–20572.

  52. Clinical & Investigative Medicine. Gao F, et al. Hyaluronan oligosaccharides are potential stimulators to angiogenesis via RHAMM mediated signal pathway in wound healing. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 2008;31:E106-116

  53. Advanced Experimental Medical Biology. Gao, et al. Hypoxia-induced alterations in hyaluronan and hyaluronidase" Adv Exp Med Biol.2005;566:249–256

  54. The American Journal of Pathology. Ouhtit A, et al. In vivo evidence for the role of CD44s in promoting breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Am J Path. 2007;171:2033–2039

  55. Seminars in Cancer Biology. Naor, et al. Involvement of CD44, a molecule with a thousand faces, in cancer dissemination. Sem Cancer Biol. 2008;18:260–267

  56. Journal of Neuro-Oncology. Hall CL, et al. Hyaluronan: RHAMM mediated cell locomotion and signaling in tumorigenesis. J Neuro-oncology. 1995;103:203–207

  57. Journal of Biology & Chemistry. Savani et al. (2001). "Differential involvement of the hyaluornan (HA) receptors CD44 and receptor for HA-mediated motility in endothelial cell function and angiogenesis". J Biol Chem 276: 36770–36778.

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  60. Dermatologic Surgery. Lee, J. N. W.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, M. N. M.; Lee, C. K. (2010). "Treatment of Acne Scars Using Subdermal Minimal Surgery Technology". Dermatologic Surgery 36 (8): 1281–1287. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2010.01623.x. PMID 20573176. edit
  61. Dermatologic Surgery. Han, T. E. Y.; Lee, J. N. W.; Lee, J. H. K.; Son, S. J.; Kim, B. J.; Mun, S. K.; Kim, M. N. M.; Lee, C. K. (2011). "Subdermal Minimal Surgery with Hyaluronic Acid as an Effective Treatment for Neck Wrinkles".Dermatologic Surgery 37 (9): 1291–1296. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2011.02057.x.PMID 21635631. edit

  62. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology. Frankel, A.; Sohn, A.; Patel, R. V.; Lebwohl, M. (2011). "Bilateral comparison study of pimecrolimus cream 1% and a ceramide-hyaluronic acid emollient foam in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis". Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD 10 (6): 666–672. PMID 21637908. edit

  63. Dermatologic Surgery. Cox, S. E. E. (2009). "Clinical Experience with Filler Complications". Dermatologic Surgery 35: 1661–1666. doi:10.1111/j.1524-4725.2009.01345.x. PMID 19807761. edit

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  70. Experimental Physiology. >Brown TJ; Laurent UBJ Fraser JRE (1991). "Turnover of hyaluronan in synovial joints: elimination of labelled hyaluronan from the knee joint of the rabbit". Experimental Physiology 76 (1): 125–134.PMID 2015069.</
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  74.Jump up^ 1. Miller D, O'Connor P,William J: Use of Na-Hyaluronate during intraocular lens implantation in rabbits. Ophthal Surg. 8:58–61, 1977

  75.Jump up^ 7. Miller D, Stegmann R: Healon: A Comprehensive Guide to its Use in Ophthalmic Surgery. J Wiley, NY, 1983

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  78.Jump up^ Gerecht S, Burdick JA, Ferreira LS, Townsend SA, Langer R, and Vunjak-Novakovic G: Hyaluronic acid hydrogel for controlled self-renewal and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells" Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:11298-11303, 2007.

  79.Jump up^ Dar A, Calabro A: Synthesis and characterization of tyramine-based hyaluronan hydrogels. J Mater Sci: Mater Med, 20:33–44, 2009.

  80.Jump up^ Wnek GE, Bowlin GL (editors): Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering. Informa Healthcare, 2008.

  81.Jump up^ Hanjaya-Putra D, Bose V, Shen YI, Yee J, Khetan S, Fox-Talbot K, Steenberg C, Burdick JA and Gerecht S (2001). "Controlled activation of morphogenesis to generate a functional human microvasculature in a synthetic matrix", Blood ,118(3):804-815.
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